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فَإِنَّهُ مَنْ يَعِشْ مَنْكُمْ بَعْدي فَسَيَرَى اخْتِلاَفًا كَثِيْرًا ، فَعَلَيْكُمْ بِسُنَّتِي وَ سُنَّةِ الْخُلَفَاءِ الرَّاشِدِيْنَ المَهْدِيِّيْنَ ، عَضُّوا عَلَيْهَا بِالنَّوَاجِذِ

The Development Of Science 2

Tuesday, March 30, 2010 , Posted by Rendy Adam Fitriadi at 9:30 PM



On This time, we will continued the discussion about the development of science in Islam. Let's get started.


●    Astronomical tables
Is a sector of an astronomy science which contains tables that according to arithmetic formula, regarding with special motion every planets and the motions character, fast, slow, straight, back and so on with counting every motion according to applicable rules. These tables follow many basic principles that have been defined concerning the knowledge of the apogee (farthest point from the earth and the circulation of a satellite) and declinations, variety motions and how these things off the other one. Determination of the star's position at a particular time in this area is called tuning tabulation. Scholars who wrote about this, is Al-Battani, Ibn al-Khamad, and Ibn Ishaq scholars who conduct astronomical observations.


●    Phsycs
According to Encyclopedia of Islam, Phsycs is a science which discuss about matter, structure of matter, the nature of the various forms of matter, energy and their interactions

According to Ibn Khaldun's, Science of Physics is to discuss about the bodies from the standpoint of the movement and still attached to it.


Phsycs learning about celestial bodies and substances elementary, as well as humans, animals, plants and minerals that are created from it, Subject springs, earthquakes that occur in the earth, also clouds, steam, thunder, lightning, and storms that are in the atmosphere and others. Further study of the body, the soul in various forms in which appeared in humans and animals and plants.


Aristotle's books on Phsycs summarized in Syifa Ibn Sina Works, then Ibn Sina re-summarized in the book An-Najah and Al-Isyarat. Ibn Sina seems like oppose Aristotle and many expressed his own opinions, and  Ibn Rushd summarizes too,  but does not oppose.


●    Medicine
Medicine is a branch of physics, thats learn about the human body in terms of health and illness Doctors tried to maintain health and cure diseases with medicines and food.


Galen or galinus are scientists who lived prophet Isa era, his medical works is the parent of medicine. In Islam there are prominent physicians such as al-Razi (Muhammad ibn Zakariya) 251-313H / 866-925 AD, al-Majus (Ali ibn al-Abbas to the 10th century) and Ibn Sina. And from among the most famous Andalusian is Ibn-Zuhr (Abdul Malik ibn Zuhr (avenzoar) d. 557 (1162).


In Islam there are prominent doctors such as al-Razi (Muhammad ibn Zakariya) 251-313H / 866-925 AD, al-Majus (Ali ibn al-Abbas to the 10th century) and Ibn Sina. And from among the most famous Andalusian is Ibn-Zuhr (Abdul Malik ibn Zuhr (avenzoar) d. 557 (1162)


According to Ibn Khaldun Medical, science is not mentioned in the saheeh hadith. because Muhammad was not sent by God to the medical problem, but a problem of religious Shari'a laws. this has occurred when at the time of the Prophet was asked about the marriage process were carved, the prophet (PBUH) said “you know better about the world problems (than me). So none of the statements about the medicine contained in the authentic hadith be expressed as a Shari'a. Which may only if such a medical type used to obtain the blessings and the truth of the bonds of faith, so as to have a large influence benefits. However it was not included humoral medicine, but the result of sincere faith. As occurred in the treatment of abdominal pain with honey. And Allah gives guidance to the right, there is no god but He.


●    Agriculture Science
      Studying processing, plants, irrigation, land preparation. One of the Greek books, Book called al-Falahah an-Nabathiyyah (nabataean agricultural farm ) ascribed to Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Wasyiyah, contains information on the above, but when it learned only limited, just study of plants, and processing, maintenance because it was the book also comes to magic,and in Islam is forbidden to learn.
●    Chemistry
       In this science is studying the substance of gold, silver, and about how objects working, the production of gold, silver, they are also investigating waste materials, operational efforts through the transfer of substance from the potentiality to actualities. for example, by the dissolution of bodies (substances) in natural components through sublimation and distillation by the solidification of meltable substance (liquid) through classification (calcification) by pulverisasi hard objects with the help of mortar equipment and the hammers and others. If the black stone, tin and copper was prepared to accept gold or silver is heated in the fire then this substance will turn into pure gold. 


Famous chemist Jabir Bin Hayyan, so they call it "the science of Jabir" and he has written a treatise on the chemical 70. But still, like a crossword puzzle. Eastern philosophers who explained systematical science of chemistry is Ath-Thaghra. Then al-Majrithi Maslamah Scientists from Andalusia who wrote a book about chemistry rutbah al-Hakim.

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