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The Development Of Science 1

Tuesday, March 30, 2010 , Posted by Rendy Adam Fitriadi at 1:17 PM






The Development Of Science

•    Mathematics is a science which obtained from charts and rational, Mathematical concept which have been developed are:
A.    The logic of the evidence
B.    Empirical ideas about the exact law and natural law
C.    Operation concept
D.    Mathematics moves from statics definition to dynamic


•    Arithmetics
According to Ibn Khaldun, the meaning of Arithmetics is a knowledge about a numbers which combines in a countdown lines and measures line, arithmethics is the first sector in mathematics sciences and absolute which proof in quantifications.  The books about this science is written Asy-syifa, An-Najat by Ibn Sina


•    Algebra
Algebra is a sector of arithmetics, the first person who wrote this science is Al-Khwarizmi, then Abu Kamil Syuja Ibn Aslam. But The best book is work by Al-Quraishi


•    Business Arithmetics
The sector of this science is trade calculate, their applications refer s to the sale and purchase of goods, land measurement, zakat and all of the businnes which related to a numbers. The trade  science theory by  famous scientist from Andalusia is Az-Zahrawi, Ibn As-Samah, Abu Muslim Ibn Khaldun, and the student Maslamah Al-Majriti


•    Al-Faraidh
Al-faraidh is a science to calculate an inheritance, on Malik Madzhab (sect) theres created book by Ibn Tsabit, Summary books by Qadli Abu al-Qasim al- Hufi, Ibnu al-Munmir, al-ju’adi, al-Shuradi. On Syafi’i sect, theres Iman al-Haramain, and also on Hanbali and Hanafi sect.


•    Measure Science
Learn about the measurements of quantity, such like a line, plane and geometric objects.The Greeks Books which translated into Arabic by caliph of Abu Ja’far al-manshur is called Eukleides, the summarized that ever created by Ibnu Sina it’s called As-Syifa, and al-Iqtishar by Ibnu as- Shalt


•    Geometry
The sector if land measurements science, cubic term, inch, and other units is a basis of this science.


•    Optics
Is a sector of Geometry which explained about the causes of mistakes of visual perception. Visual perception happen when occurrence with cone generated by the light, the peak is the point of view and the base is the object if visits, it also explained about the difference in seeing the moon at different laritude (de Slane noted that Ibn Khaldun has said Longitudes). The most well known scholar who discussing this are Ibnu al-Haitsan.

•    Astronomy
The study of the constantly movements of stars and planets, astronomy draw conclusions based on geometrical methods of the specific forms and a variety of positions that require the circular movement can be seen with the sense. And astronomy proves that theres precision equinox, center of the earth is not identically to the center of a small circle (epicycle) which brings (the stars) and moving in a big circle. Then through the statical movement of stars, astronomy proves the eighth circle of celestial sphere. Also demonstrated that a single star has a declination. Greek people  use a tool they called Astrolabe (i-ness halg). In Islam at the time of al-Ma'mun established a large observational tool known Astrolabe, but not completed then the foundations of this building was gone, and forgotten.


The best works of this field is Majisti (Al-Magest) authored by Ptolemy (king of Greece), then a leading Muslim philosophers like Ibn Sina summarized in the ash-Syifa, Ibn Rushd (Andalusian philosopher) also summarized the work of Ptolemy. Ibn al-Samah and ibn al-Shalt in the book of al-Iqtishar, Ibn al-Farghani.


To be continued..

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